CBD – (Convention on Biological Diversity): The United Nations’ initiative to protect and preserve biological diversity on Earth for future generations.
The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) is an international treaty that was adopted at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992. The CBD is one of the most significant and comprehensive agreements addressing issues related to biodiversity conservation, sustainable use of natural resources, and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from genetic resources.
The main objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity are:
Conservation of Biological Diversity: The CBD aims to conserve biodiversity, including ecosystems, species, and genetic resources. This involves the protection and restoration of habitats, prevention of species extinction, and sustainable management of biological resources.
Sustainable Use: The convention emphasises the sustainable use of biological resources, ensuring that human activities do not degrade or deplete natural resources beyond their capacity to regenerate.
Fair and Equitable Benefit Sharing: The CBD seeks to ensure the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilisation of genetic resources. This is particularly relevant when genetic resources are used for commercial purposes, such as in the development of pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and agriculture.
Access to Genetic Resources: The CBD establishes principles and guidelines for accessing genetic resources in a way that respects the sovereignty of countries and the rights of indigenous and local communities.
Transfer of Technology: The convention encourages the transfer of environmentally sound technologies to support the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity.
The CBD has three main components:
The Conference of the Parties (COP): The COP is the supreme decision-making body of the CBD. It meets periodically to review progress, make decisions on policies and strategies, and set priorities for biodiversity conservation.
The Secretariat: The Secretariat is responsible for coordinating and facilitating the implementation of the CBD’s objectives and decisions.
It is based in Montreal, Canada. National Focal Points: Each party to the CBD designates a national focal point to serve as a liaison between the country and the CBD Secretariat. The CBD has led to the development of various subsidiary agreements and protocols, including the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilisation. These agreements provide additional frameworks for addressing specific aspects of biodiversity conservation and benefit sharing. The CBD highlights the importance of global cooperation and collective efforts to address the challenges of biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation, promoting sustainable development for the well-being of both present and future generations.