Biodiversity: The biological diversity of flora and fauna species on Earth, a complex web of life that underpins the natural life processes on the planet. Human-caused environmental damage reduces biodiversity, and creating a healthy, sustainable society requires increasing biodiversity.
Biodiversity, short for biological diversity, refers to the variety of life forms, both plants and animals, found in a specific habitat, ecosystem, or across the entire planet. It encompasses the range of different species, their genetic variations, and the ecosystems they form. Biodiversity is essential for the health and stability of ecosystems, as well as for the overall well-being of the planet and its inhabitants.
Biodiversity includes three main components:
Species Diversity: This refers to the variety of different species present in a particular area. It encompasses the total number of species as well as their relative abundance.
Genetic Diversity: This pertains to the variety of genes within a single species. Genetic diversity is crucial for a species’ ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions and to resist diseases.
Ecosystem Diversity: This refers to the different types of habitats, ecosystems, and ecological processes that exist within a region. Ecosystem diversity includes various types of forests, grasslands, wetlands, oceans, and more.
Biodiversity plays a critical role in maintaining ecosystem services, such as pollination of crops, water purification, soil fertility, climate regulation, and pest control. It also contributes to cultural and aesthetic values, scientific understanding, and potential future discoveries in medicine and technology. However, biodiversity is currently facing significant threats due to human activities such as habitat destruction, pollution, climate change, overexploitation of resources, and the introduction of invasive species. Conservation efforts aim to protect and restore biodiversity to ensure the continued health of ecosystems and the survival of numerous species.