NDC (Nationally Based Contributions): A nationally determined contribution (NDC) is a non-binding national plan highlighting climate change mitigation, including climate-related targets for greenhouse gas emission reductions. These plans also include policies and measures governments aim to implement in response to climate change and as a contribution to achieve the global targets set out in the Paris Agreement.
In the context of the Paris Agreement, the term “Nationally Determined Contributions” (NDCs) is more commonly used. NDCs are the climate action plans that each country submits to the UNFCCC outlining their specific targets, goals, and strategies for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and adapting to the impacts of climate change. These contributions are “nationally determined” because each country decides its own targets and actions based on its national circumstances, capabilities, and priorities.
Key points about Nationally Based Contributions (NDCs) or Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) include:
Mitigation Targets: NDCs primarily focus on the mitigation (emission reduction) aspects of addressing climate change. Countries outline their intended efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and often provide information about the sectors and policies they plan to implement to achieve these reductions.
Adaptation and Resilience: While the emphasis is on mitigation, some countries also include information about their plans for adapting to the impacts of climate change and building resilience in their NDCs.
Updating and Enhancing: The Paris Agreement encourages countries to regularly update and enhance their NDCs to reflect increasing ambition over time. Countries are expected to communicate their updated NDCs every five years.
Transparency and Reporting: Countries are required to provide transparent and accurate information about their NDCs, progress toward meeting their targets, and the measures they are taking to achieve their commitments.
Global Efforts: The collective implementation of NDCs by all countries is expected to contribute to the global effort to limit global warming and address climate change. The long-term goal of the Paris Agreement is to keep global temperature rise well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit it to 1.5 degrees Celsius.
Equity and Differentiation: The principle of “common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities” is a key aspect of NDCs. It recognises that developed and developing countries have different historical contributions to emissions and varying capacities to address climate change.
The term “Nationally Based Contributions” might be an alternative or less commonly used term for NDCs, or it could be specific to certain national or regional contexts. However, in the broader international climate change discourse, “Nationally Determined Contributions” (NDCs) is the widely recognised and accepted term.