UNFCCC (Paris Climate Agreement 2015) (Put into effect 2016) – COP 21 sets out a global framework to limit global warming to 1.5°C and Carbon Net Zero by 2050. The UNFCCC stands for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. It is an international treaty established to address the global issue of climate change and its impacts.
The UNFCCC was adopted at the Earth Summit (the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992 and entered into force on March 21, 1994. The key objectives of the UNFCCC are to:
Stabilise Greenhouse Gas Concentrations: The UNFCCC seeks to stabilize the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere at levels that will prevent dangerous human interference with the climate system.
Mitigate Climate Change: The treaty aims to promote actions by countries to reduce their emissions of greenhouse gases, with the goal of preventing global warming and its associated impacts.
Support Sustainable Development: The convention emphasizes the importance of integrating climate change policies with sustainable development efforts.
The UNFCCC has a Conference of the Parties (COP) that serves as its supreme governing body. The COP meets annually to assess progress, negotiate agreements, and make decisions related to the implementation of the convention. The most notable outcome of the UNFCCC is the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol in 1997, which established legally binding emission reduction targets for developed countries.
Another significant achievement was the adoption of the Paris Agreement in 2015, which builds on the UNFCCC and sets out international commitments to limit global warming to well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels, with efforts to limit it to 1.5 degrees Celsius.
The UNFCCC plays a central role in shaping global climate policy and facilitating international cooperation to address the urgent challenge of climate change. It provides a platform for countries to negotiate and collaborate on actions that mitigate and adapt to the impacts of climate change, working together to safeguard the planet for future generations.